Paradigm in Nursing (Student note)

“The nursing is gradually leaving the multi-paradigmatic state and progressing to become a single paradigm…”

What is Paradigm?
Paradigm comes from Greek παράδειγμα (paradeigma), “pattern, example, sample” from the verb παραδείκνυμι (paradeiknumi), “exhibit, represent, expose” and that from παρά (para), “beside, beyond”and δείκνυμι (deiknumi), “to show, to point out” (Wikipedia, 2015). Paradigm is the set of acceptability of agents in a field, which provide a framework in which context the scientists’ research to solve scientific problems and regulate the series of studies in the field (Bahramnezhad, Shiri, Asgari, & Afshar, 2015).
The Khun’s assumptions about Paradigm are

  1. The “paradigm” as a scientific revolution based on unprecedented and attractive achievements, which are able to attract the group sufficiently.
  2. Paradigm is a scientific achievement that provides a framework for academic performance and is a model for explanation.
  3. Paradigm in the natural sciences represents a series of simulated tests and experiments that direct different types of questions relating to a particular topic and makes answering to those questions purposeful.
  4. Paradigm in the natural sciences shows how to conduct an experiment and the necessary equipment for them
  5. Paradigm involves public symbols (ideas and concepts), rules, and shared opinions.
  6. Scattered and various activities done before the formation of a science will be finally accepted and regulated by the scientific community after converting into a paradigm.
  7. What separates the science from non-science is the presence of this paradigm that preserves and sustains the scientific prevailing tradition.
  8. The normal science is solving the paradigm problems, which are theoretically experimental

Cohen’s definition about Paradigm is the set of acceptability of agents in a field, which provide a framework in which context the scientists research to solve scientific problems and regulate the series of studies in the field.

In accordance with Kuhn’s view, the profile of a mature science is characterized by the followings:
1) Acceptance by the scientific community as a paradigm;
2) Approach to solving the discipline problems, which have been caused by the paradigm;
3) Presence of the knowledge as research articles in scientific journals rather than books;
4) Development of an obscure and unfamiliar language;
5) A leading paradigm has the most important criteria.

Nursing Paradigm?
Nursing paradigm determines the goals and boundaries like a foundation of a building. How we think and give reason for human experiences can help us in making the paradigm. Theories of Nursing, in their turn, lead to the formation of knowledge, methods and problem-solving activities with international agreement and by the help of a certain discipline.
Newman argues that since nursing is to study care in experiencing of human health, then, it cannot have a single paradigm.
In nursing, the paradigm is based on sharing the values and presuppositions of key concepts, such as person, health, environment and nursing. The boundaries for our key concepts are reflected from the nursing culture or training, working experiences and values influencing our observations of events and situations.
Hardy argues that nursing is in the pre-paradigm stage, since it has been described by various thoughts; although it describes a variety of phenomena, but explains this phenomenon in several ways. Nursing should try to pass the pre-paradigm stage, as remaining in the pre-paradigmatic stage can cause loss of energy, bewilderment and confusion.
Use the pre-paradigm in a science produces some problems for the systematic research. Meta-paradigm or the dominant paradigm represents a general knowledge agreements settlement of a specific discipline and provides basic parameters of a field and a central point for scientific endeavors and may itself include a series of paradigms, which are more real paradigms and can conduct the scientific activities. The presence of the dominant paradigm facilitates the natural work of the sciences. With a paradigm, the research becomes purposeful and systematic and fewer unanswered questions would remain.
According to scientists, nursing is in the pre-paradigm stage. The scientific revolution may never happen in nursing, not for the nursing is not progressing, but as the normal science course may not happen. Behavioral and natural sciences’ disciplines are continuing to make progress and having rival paradigms to describe and predict other disciplines. Another point to consider is that having only one paradigm for sciences such as nursing, which deals with human being and a complex set of health and illness, is not accepted. Some nurses believe that nursing has come to start of a paradigm now, or is changing the paradigm.
Nursing science has several broad paradigms and its scientific community has not still accepted one of them, one can say it is in the pre-paradigm stage.
Problem in nursing paradigm are?
Nursing scholars have found that theories previously conducting clinical services are not today sufficient to explain, predict and direct the clinical services. In addition, the old theories may not be useful anymore for the developing science of nursing, as the researchers working on new paradigms of nursing do find evidence that differentiate between the nursing science and sciences such as anthropology, biology, chemistry, physics, psychology and sociology that nurses routinely refer to them cited to explain the discipline.

Resources:
Bahramnezhad, Fatemeh, Shiri, Mahmoud, Asgari, Parvaneh, & Afshar, Pouya Farokhnezhad. (2015). A Review of The nursing Paradigma. Open Journal of nursing, 5, 17-23.
Wikipedia. (2015). Paradigm. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paradigm

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